Monday, April 1, 2013

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Classification of Research According to Investigation and Data Collection

Classification of Research According to Investigation and data collection
Classification of Research

Classification of research according to investigation and data collection:

According to investigation and data collection research can be classified into the following ways-

1.      Census
2.      Survey
3.      Experimental research
a.      Lab experiment
b.      Field experiment
4.      Motivational research
5.      Panel study
6.      Research by unobtrusive measure

Classification of Research: Investigation & Data collection

1. Census:

For conducting research, when a researcher collects data by considering every items of the whole population, is called census. For example, population statistics is a census. Because in this case data is collected about the people from every aspect and from every district, thana, union, village, etc. throughout the country. Population growth is high or low, male or female number is increasing or decreasing, number of mortality rate, number of infant mortality rate, etc. included in population statistics. Again if we want to know the number of people living under the extreme poverty line, it can be done by census or sampling. To do this when we will consider all person who are living under poverty line then it will be a census.


2. Survey:

It is totally oppose of census. Here we randomly collect data rather considering the whole population. So it is also known as sample survey. If I consider only one or two family as a sample representative from a village to calculate the total population of the country then it will be survey. When a time limit and budget is low for the research at that case survey will be better to do research.

3. Experimental research:

Here we will observe the cause and effect relationship. In performance evaluation, we just compare the present one to the past one. But in experimental research, we find out the determinants - dependent and independent variable. For example, if you smoke, you will face the probability of cancer. This is the cause and effect relationship. So if you research among various people and find out the independent variable (smoking) which explains the dependent variables (cancer), then it will be an experimental research.

Experimental research can be classified in two categories:

May not be a lab experiment
      A. Lab experiment:
If the study setting of a research is controlled and/or manipulated then it is known as lab experiment. Here data is from same sectors of people or from a specific place and the visitors are previously informed for the subject of asking question. So here the variables of research can be changed, amended or substituted by the researcher. For example student of your university or your department may be the sample of a lab. You may manipulate them by classifying according to their height, age, merit, religion, etc. and then if you do experiment then it will be a lab experiment.     

           B. Field experiment: No manipulation is there and it is naturally study setting. If you collect data in that form in which form it is available and data is collected randomly, then it is known as quasi-experiment or field experiment. In this case self selection/ choice do not get priority. If you go to a bank and randomly ask some question to the bankers without informing them previously, then it will be field experiment. Again, if you want to know the effect of micro credit to a particular area then if you go to that area and randomly ask some question to the people of that area without any manipulation then it will also be field experiment.

 4. Motivational research:

There are some intrinsic matters or some intuitive things which are always lie in the core of heart of the respondent. To bring them out, so that we can get real information for our research, we need to use motivational strategy or strategies. When we will collect data by motivating the respondent for our research purpose then it will be known as motivational research. Here the researcher should closely relate his/herself to the respondent to the real data. Although it is very hard to do, but sometimes it becomes too much necessary to find out the real or true. In motivational research question is not asked directly rather researcher should become friendly to the respondent and build a close relationship with him or her by grapevine and then asked him a needed question. For example if you ask a man at the very first sight about his yearly family income, he may not give accurate figure, because at the sight he may not believe you. But if you at the very first time familiar with him and gossip sometimes he may become close to you and you may be reliable to him. Latter he can give the real figure of his family income. One of the main disadvantages of motivational research is time consuming. So it is not possible to do motivational research although we know necessity of it to find out the real information.

Panel Study

5. Panel Study:

Usually multinational company (MNCs) like Unilever, MacDonald  Gillette, Toyota etc do this type of research. In this case data is collected from some selected representatives who are well trained by the researcher. When data collection is difficult and time consuming from each item of population i.e. each customer, researcher usually select some people including boys, girls, men, women, young, old, children etc to represent the population fairly. Then train the respondents and send them to collect information from the real population. When there is time limit MNCs will call the representative to collect information. On the basis of their given information MNCs do research about what will be their new strategy or whether they will launch a new product or not etc. Panel study is very much useful for the business concern because it reduce the cost and time and more reliable than others. But sometimes it may not so. The answer or information given by the trained people may be manipulated.  They may try to blandish MNCs for their loyalty to the MNCs and for their own benefit.

6. Research by unobtrusive measure:

It is an indirect research. Sometimes some negligible matters or silly things surrounded us can give us important data or good response. For example, if you want to know how many bottles of soft drink are sold in your campus. Then you may do survey. But when you will collect data by yourself or by your observers who will just sit in front of some shops and observes how many bottles are empty and how many are full. Finally the difference between this two will help you to get true information.

Information Source: Above information and photos are collected from different books and various websites.

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